• Recursion is the name given to a programming technique in which repetition is achieved by having a function call itself. Non-recursive repetition is called iteration (looping).


  • It can provide very elegant solutions to tasks that are difficult to achieve iteratively, like deleting nodes in a binary tree.
  • In some languages, especially functional languages, recursion is the only way to achieve iteration. (Advanced: Because it does not use variables, recursion can be used to implement repetition without changing the program state. It is therefore safer in a distributed computing context because there are no side effects.)


  • You can run out of memory easily if the base case is not applied correctly.
  • Recursion can be quite confusing.


Create a page for recursion on your sites.

Add the definition, along with advantages and disadvantages. Make sure you understand them. What do I mean by the base case not being applied properly?

Write the following functions in Java both iteratively and recursively:

  • A factorial function
  • A function that takes an integer array and returns the sum of its contents.

Then we will start thinking about how to code a recursive solution to the Towers of Hanoi.


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